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Scientific Reasoning Is Material Inference: Combining Confirmation, Discovery, and Explanation

Brigandt, Ingo (2009) Scientific Reasoning Is Material Inference: Combining Confirmation, Discovery, and Explanation. [Preprint]

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    Abstract

    Whereas an inference (deductive as well as inductive) is usually viewed as being valid in virtue of its argument form, the present paper argues that scientific reasoning is material inference, i.e., justified in virtue of its content. A material inference is licensed by the empirical content embodied in the concepts contained in the premisses and conclusion. Understanding scientific reasoning as material inference has the advantage of combining different aspects of scientific reasoning, such as confirmation, discovery, and explanation. This approach explains why these different aspects (including discovery) can be rational without conforming to formal schemes, and why scientific reasoning is local, i.e., justified only in certain domains and contingent on particular empirical facts. The notion of material inference also fruitfully interacts with accounts of conceptual change and psychological theories of concepts.


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    Item Type: Preprint
    Additional Information: Draft of a paper forthcoming in International Studies in the Philosophy of Science
    Keywords: inference, concepts, confirmation, induction, explanation, discovery, conceptual change
    Subjects: General Issues > Confirmation/Induction
    General Issues > Theory Change
    General Issues > Explanation
    Depositing User: Ingo Brigandt
    Date Deposited: 18 Aug 2009
    Last Modified: 07 Oct 2010 11:18
    Item ID: 4838
    URI: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/id/eprint/4838

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