Barandes, Jacob A.
(2019)
Gauge Invariance for Classical Massless Particles with Spin.
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Abstract
Wigner's quantummechanical classification of particletypes in terms of irreducible representations of the PoincarĂ© group has a classical analogue, which we extend in this paper. We study the compactness properties of the resulting phase spaces at fixed energy, and show that in order for a classical massless particle to be physically sensible, its phase space must feature a classicalparticle counterpart of electromagnetic gauge invariance. By examining the connection between massless and massive particles in the massless limit, we also derive a classicalparticle version of the Higgs mechanism.
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